Thursday, January 16, 2020

Killology Essay

Do violence in the media and interactive entertainment, such as video games and movies, influence children to have the will to kill? According to Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, an expert on the psychology of killing, both play a big role in child murders. There are several methods to this madness by which people can actually motivate themselves to take another human life, such as, operant conditioning, classical conditioning, brutalization, and role models. These practices are used in the military to train soldiers to kill, just as the media is doing to our children. Monday, December 1st, 1997 began like any other day for the students of Heath High School in Paducah, Kentucky. Student Michael Carneal rode to school with his sister, carrying with him, what he claimed to be, an art project. As his fellow classmates gathered that morning in the lobby of the school, holding a prayer group, he fired eight rounds from a . 22 caliber pistol. Out of those eight rounds he landed five head shots and three upper torso shots, killing three teenagers. Not only did he land all eight shots, but the shots were so precise that elite military and law enforcement agencies were stunned by his expertise. The fact that he had never fired a real gun in his life was something that disturbed authorities even more. Nowhere in the records of military or law enforcement history could the â€Å"equivalent† achievement be found. So what was it that made this young man so violent and deadly at such a young age? (â€Å"The shooting,† 2010, para. 1) It’s one of the methods used by the military to train their soldiers called operant conditioning, a powerful procedure of stimulus-response training techniques that attempt to influence behavior by manipulating reinforcers. They learn to fire at realistic figures that pop up in the field. The stimulus is the target, and the response is, shooting to kill. This procedure is repeated over and over, hundreds of times, until their natural response when someone pops up on the battlefield is to kill. Research has suggested that violent video games played a big role in the choice Michael made that day. He was trained through operant conditioning just as the soldiers are, except his was through violent video games. Following the shooting there was a $130-million law suit filed against the video game manufacturers in that case. This case is said to be working its way through the appeals system of the courts. (Metcalf, Stubblefield, & Ettinger, 2011, p. 152) Violent video games train our children to kill, glorify violence, desensitize them to suffering, and trivialize violence. Every time a child plays an interactive video game, he or she is learning the exact same conditioned reflex skills as a soldier or police officer in training. Kids are playing more and more violent video games that are rated for a mature audience. So, ask yourself this question; how do fourteen year old teenagers obtain video games that are rated â€Å"Mature? † Better yet, why are they allowed by their parents to play the evil, sadistic games? Parents should replace the violent video games with non-violent, stimulating, and educational games; those which enhance knowledge, creativity and imagination. The violent crime rate is at a phenomenally high level, not just in America, but worldwide. According to Interpol, the per capita assault rate increased nearly fivefold in Norway and Greece between the years of 1977 and 1993. In Mexico and Brazil, the numbers are skyrocketing, and in Japan juvenile crime went up by thirty percent in 1997 alone. (Metcalf, Stubblefield, & Ettinger, 2011, p. 150). The virus of violent crime is occurring worldwide, and the explanation for it has to be some new factor that is occurring in all of these countries. There are many factors involved in the action of violent crime, and we must never downplay any of them. There is only one new variable present in each of these nations, and it is that media violence is now being presented as a viable entertainment option for children. Metcalf et al. , 2011, p. 150) Another method used by the Japanese, in World War II, which we also see done with the media, is classical conditioning. This technique is best remembered as Pavlovian conditioning, associating a stimulus with a response according to a specific reinforcement schedule, such as violence linked to pleasure. As Pavlov did with the dog, by associating the bell with food and eventually the dog could not hear the bell without salivating, the media does with the children. How often do we watch the news and learn of something good that has happened in the world? They are always focusing on all of the violence that is going on in the world. Our children see this as well, and they learn to associate death with pleasure. To better understand the role that violence and the media inherit, in the entertainment complex, plays in the increase of murders among the young and impressionable. We must first look at the methods by which killers can be made. Though such a difficult subject cannot be completely explained by these factors alone, it is important to note the contribution each one makes. Throughout the course of human history, it is thought that healthy members of most species have a natural resistance to killing their own kind. However, when human beings are overwhelmed with anger and fear, thought processes become primitive. We slam head-on into that hardwired resistance against killing. One of the methods that shift this natural resistance is what is commonly known as brutalization. Quite similar to a military boot camp, brutalization is a forced shift in values. The subject is made to conform to a new set of rules, abandoning all sense of individuality. They are trained relentlessly in a total immersion environment and the end result is a person who not only embraces the violence and the discipline, but accepts them as normal and an essential survival skill in a new and increasingly brutal world. (Metcalf et al. , 2011, p. 151) A very similar thing is happening to our children through violence in the media. At eighteen months old, a child can begin to understand and mimic what they see on television, and up until the ages of six or seven they are physically, developmentally, and psychologically unable to distinguish the difference between fantasy and reality. When they see an instance of rape, murder or degradation on the television or in the media, to them it is real. Some of them welcome the violence and accept it as a normal and vital survival skill in a cruel, new world. In nations, regions and cities where television is a constant source of entertainment, there is an immediate eruption of playground violence, and within fifteen years, there is a doubling of the murder rate, but why fifteen years? That’s how long it takes for a desensitized toddler to reach their â€Å"prime crime† years. Metcalf et al. , 2011, p. 151) By the time the brutalized toddlers have reached their teenage years, they have developed role models. Today, violence in the media is providing our children with role models. When the images of young killers are broadcast on television, they become role models. The media has every right and responsibility to tell the story, but they have no right to glorify the killers by presenting their images on television. (Grossman, 2000, p. ) The ultimate achievement for our children is to get their picture on television, and with such vulnerable, young minds they are willing to do whatever it takes to achieve that. I say it is time for the world to stop televising such violence and let law enforcement deal with it. If they know who the killer is then why does it have to be broadcast for our children to see? I truly believe that the media is highly responsible for a lot of killings in this world, along with the violent video games, and I pray that one day there will be something done to stop it.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Fire safety of the residential buildings in Hong Kong - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2374 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Building Essay Type Analytical essay Tags: Hong Kong Essay Did you like this example? How fit for the purpose of the current regulations on the fire safety of the residential Low-rise buildings in Hong Kong Background Fire safety is an important topic in building because it is directly related to humanà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s lives. From past to now, the fire safety management and technologies keep improving. For example, every building now will have an escape route plan and some high-rise buildings have a design of refuge floor to manage the fire accident. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Fire safety of the residential buildings in Hong Kong" essay for you Create order There are also lots of fire resistant materials invented to use in the building like concrete, Fire-retardanttreatedwood and Calcium silicateboards etc. The purpose of all these improvement is to ensure a better fire safety in the buildings. In Hong Kong, there is a systematic framework to ensure the fire safety in buildings. We have a list of regulations and codes of practices concerning fire safety: -The fire Safety (Buildings) Ordinance -Code of practices for the provision of means of escape in case of fire -Code of practices for means of access for firefighting and rescue -Code of practices for fire resistance construction -Code of Practice for Minimum Fire Service Installations and Equipment -Code of Practice for Inspection, Testing and Maintenance of Installations and Equipment Moreover we have fire services department and the building department to enforce the law. However, fire safety is still not good enough in Hong Kong. Fire accidents are not unu sual and lots of fire accidents happened in the old-residential buildings in HK. Take the most recent- 2011 Fa Yuen Street fire accident as an example. The fire broke out at Pai dong area inFa Yuen Street and quickly spread to the near Tong Lau buildings. It killed 9 people, injured 34 and about 118 people became homeless after the fire. It shows that Fire accident in the old Tong Lau can be a disaster. This accident has raised public concern on the fire safety problems on the old low-rise building. In fact, most Tong Lau / old low-rise residential buildings aged more than 40 years. They comply with the past fire safety regulations at which the time the building being built. However, with several changes to the regulations, these old buildings failed to comply with the current fire safety standard. According to the fire Safety (Buildings) Ordinance 2007, all the composite and domestic buildings constructed on or before 1987 have to improve the fire safety to meet the requirements of today, the modern standards. For example, the automatic sprinkler systems are not required in the past but it becomes a must today. In the past three years, Hong Kong government seriously looked into problems of the fire safety performance in the old low-rise residential buildings. At the end of February 2013, around 6 000 out of the 9 000 old composite buildings in Hong Kong were inspected by the building department and the fire services department. Over 100 thousands Fire Safety Directions were issued to the occupiers requesting them to enhance the building fire safety to meet the updated standards. However, among all FS Directions issued, less than a quarter have been complied with. It was found that most of the old buildings have difficulties to comply with the modern fire safety regulations. Some owners and professionals criticize the modern fire safety regulation is too inflexible and not designed to target the old-residential buildings so a large scale of alteration wo rk needed to be done in order to fulfil the strict regulations. Even worst, some regulations are not practical in the real world for instance, installing a water tank in the roof of the buildings is not feasible as some of these old buildings do not have pile foundation so they cannot withstand such an additional loading. No doubt, the alteration work would give a strong financial pressure to the owners. The situation even more severe in the apartment with only one or two unit per floor, small number of flat owner have to share a large sum of construction fee. The question most current residents want to ask is whether they follow straightly the current fire safety regulations to do the alteration and addition works are really the best and efficient way to help their buildings to fight fire. The dissertation is going to answer the above question. It will be focused on the domestic buildings of seven or less storeys, or the domestic buildings aged 40 years or more. An analysis stud y about the fire safety of Low-rise building will be carried out to examine the fire-safety in several aspects including the performance of prevention of fire, the fire control and the protection in the building. In this section, some past fire accidents will be studied. Through this examination, pressure points of fire dangers of the old- residential building will be identified. Then an evaluation on the current regulations will be carried out to see how fit for the purpose of the current regulations on the fire safety of the residential Low-rise buildings based on the examination of the pressure points. The low-rise buildings that have already undergone alteration and addition works and fulfilled the fire safety requirement and the buildings that still not yet fulfilled the fire safety requirement will also be cases studied. Finally I want to give some advices or alternatives for the fire safety construction works in these buildings, telling what must be done urgently and what are alternative ways to fulfill some requirement etc. Aim To analysis how fit for the purpose of the current regulations on the fire safety of the residential Low-rise buildings in Hong Kong Objectives Review on the history/background of the design of the old residential buildings for the fire safety Identify and compare the past and current fire safety regulations concerning the fire safety i.e. any addition, change and deletion Analysis the fire safety performance of the old residential buildings Examine the degree of fitness of these regulations to the the old residential buildings in fire safety Advice on the fire safety construction work Methodology For the objective one and two, a Literature review will be done to find out the historic/background information of these old-buildings. For example, for what purpose they are being built, what is the design concept in that era, how is the fire safety being ensured in the past etc.? A large amount of information will be needed to understand the design of the old building, the scientific rational in the material used and the standards for fire safety in the past. Then, time factor is also taken into account. Through literature review, I would find out what is the impact of depreciation to the fire safety including the performance of concrete, the wood doors, the fire-resisting oil overtime and the relationship between structural frame and the fire etc. Moreover, some literature materials produced by the Hong Kong institute of Surveyors concerning on the fire-safety regulations will be helpful for me to identify the past and current fire safety regulations. To furthe r compare the current and past regulations concerning the fire safety i.e. any addition, change and deletion, I need to study all the regulations concerning fire safety. I also need an interview with the professional surveyors and architects to get their opinion to support my comparison. For objective three, I have to analysis and examine the fire safety performance of these buildings. I designed to construct a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“fire safety level indexà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  which can be used to grade the safety performance of the old low-rise residential buildings. Fire safety can be viewed as ability of prevention of fire and performance in case there is a fire. The framework of index will be built based on real data and assumption: First, real case analysis on the past fire accidents to analysis their floor plans, the reasons of starting of fire, the spread of fire and the performance of escape and then identify the corresponding common weaknesses of these old buildings like the rout e of escape, the number of staircases, doors and the performance of insulating wall etc. Second, I will assume if there is a fire in some sample buildings, and do different models to represent different ways of starting of fire. Then, assess the performance of fire safety similarly to the above case study and identify the weakness, strength and the pressure points. In addition, I will interview the fireman, building services engineers and building surveyors to further assess the importance and role of every fire safety element. After all, all attributes in building related to fire safety will be categorized and given a weighting, say fire sprinkling system is very important and has multiplier 5 and the fireman lift is minor so it has a multiplier 1 only. For objective four, the degree of fitness of fire-safety regulations to the the old residential buildings in fire safety will be examined. In this part, the relationship between the fire safety regulations with the fire safety performance discussed above, concerns of construction work with time, money and feasibility. For example, if the fire sprinkler is proved in the fire safety index to be very crucial in the old-residential buildings. On the other hand, the fire safety regulations have stated the old-building has to install the sprinkler system. We can say this current ordinance fits the purpose of fire safety in old-residential building in theory. Then, it comes to consider the construction work with time, money and feasibility factors in reality. If that sprinkler is not practical at most cases due to the water tank loading problems or the incredibly high money/time cost, this current ordinance can be deems as not fitting the purpose of fire safety in old-residential building. The methods I used to draw this kind of conclusion are case analysis and interview the professional. There are over 3000 cases of alteration work done by old-residential building to comply with current fire-safety re gulations. I could make use of their cases, to collect their alteration work financial report, construction work checklist and interview the ownersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ corporations. There are also some project going to begin and I will do the site visit and access their fire safety performance by using my à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“fire safety level indexà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and compare the before and after. Interview will also be carried out in the buildings that refuse to comply with the Fire Safety Directions issued to find out their difficulties in complying with the current fire safety regulation. For objective five, based on the findings of importance of different elements in fire safety, the result of fitness of regulations and the case example studied, I think I can give advices on the fire safety construction work. The advices will be supported by interviewing the professionals. Brief Literature Review What is fire safety? Stollard and Abrahamsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (1999) gave an idea on it. The above diagram represents the fire tactics. There are five elements in fire safety in a building. First, prevention is always the fundamental element. A building should be design for a purpose and restrict the people for doing something so as to minimize the chance of fire accidents. However, if the prevention failed, it comes to the communication which is the fire alarm and smoke detector so as to allow all the users to notice the fire. Then, the fire could be extinguished successfully or otherwise become a disaster. People will escape when notice the fire and the staircases, the doors and the corridors all become a main factor to allow people escape efficiently or not. Containment is also an important part in fire safety, it concerns with how the fire being control. If the buildings have lots of fire-resisting wall and sprinkler system, the fire would not spread at fast rate. We can see all part in the building corporate to ensure fire safety. The code of pract ice of fire safety in HK 2011 stated the objective of fire safety. Fire safety provisions should be provided for both life safety and property protection. It includes protecting the life of occupants, minimizing the spread of fire, preventing the building collapse and helping firefighting and rescue action. Research programme 2014/6 -Literature review to find out the historic/background information of old-buildings -Literature review on impact of depreciation to the fire safety -Literature on materials produced by the Hong Kong institute of Surveyors concerning on the fire-safety regulations 2014/7 -Study of all fire safety regulations -Literature on materials produced by the Hong Kong institute of Surveyors concerning on the fire-safety regulations 2014/8 -Interview with the professional surveyors and architects on the fire-safety regulations (From my summer intern à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" BS firm) -Research on the old-residential buildings in Hong Kong (Which have complied with the current regulation, which havenà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t?) 2014/9 -Construct the Fire Safety Level Index -Fire accidents case study -Interview the fireman, building services engineers and building surveyors to further assess the importance and role of every fire safety element. -Choose some buildings which can be representative of the old low rise residential buildings 2014/10 -Construct the Fire Safety Level Index -Fire accidents modeling building and analysis -Interview the representative buildings that planning to do alteration 2014/11 -Interview the representative buildings that undergone alteration -Interview the representative buildings that do not undergo alteration -Follow up the representative buildings that planning to do alteration 2014/12 -Interview the representative buildings that do not undergo alteration -Follow up the representative buildings that planning to do alteration -Financial rep ort, construction work report analysis 2015/1 -Interview the representative buildings that do not undergo alteration -Follow up the representative buildings that planning to do alteration -Financial report, construction work report analysis -Interviewing the professionals to get the construction advices 2015/2 -Follow up the representative buildings that planning to do alteration -Financial report, construction work report analysis -Interviewing the professionals to get the construction advices 2015/3 -Amendment and correction 2015/4 -Amendment and correction Reference Abrahams, J. and Stollard, P. (1999) Fire from First Principles: A Design Guide to Building Fire Safety, 3rd edition. London: EFN Spon. Buildings Department (2011) Code of Practice for Fire Safety in Buildings: HKSAR. LCQ5: Fire safety of old buildingson 2013/03/20 https://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/201303/20/P201303200373.htm Article on 2013/09/11 fire safety directions https://hk.centanet.com/home/ColumnArticle.aspx?id=50325 Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors Pre-qualification Structural Learning https://www.hkis.org.hk/hkis/general/events/cpd-2012065B.pdf News om 2014/01/23- ÃÆ' ¦Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¶Ãƒâ€¹Ã¢â‚¬  ÃƒÆ' ©Ãƒâ€¹Ã…“ ²ÃƒÆ' ¥Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ±Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¹ÃƒÆ' §Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²ÃƒÆ' ¥Ãƒâ€ Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ µÃƒÆ' ¥Ãƒâ€¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢- ÃÆ' ¨Ãƒâ€¹Ã¢â‚¬  Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚  ÃƒÆ' ¦Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¨Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“ÃÆ' ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¹ÃƒÆ' ¥-à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¾ÃƒÆ' ©Ãƒâ€¹Ã…“ ²ÃƒÆ' §Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ «ÃƒÆ' ¥Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ -ÃÆ' ©Ãƒâ€¹Ã…“ » https://orientaldaily.on.cc/cnt/news/20140123/00196_001.html News om 2014/01/27- ÃÆ' ¦Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¶Ãƒâ€¹Ã¢â‚¬  ÃƒÆ' ©Ãƒâ€¹Ã…“ ²ÃƒÆ' ¥Ãƒâ€¹Ã¢â‚¬  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ÃƒÆ' ©Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ºÃƒâ€šÃ‚ £ÃƒÆ' ¨Ãƒâ€¹Ã¢â‚¬  Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚  ÃƒÆ' ¦Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¨Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“ÃÆ' ¦Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¥Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ­ÃƒÆ' ¤Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¸Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ » https://orientaldaily.on.cc/cnt/news/20140127/00196_001.ht ml.

Tuesday, December 31, 2019

The World s Foreign Policy - 1593 Words

As the world turned over into the 20th century the threat of war could be seen throughout European countries. Tensions arising from alliances, the arming of nations, and the deep seated hatred still present from past loses were all too present. In late July of 1914 the powder keg that was Europe would erupt and the countries would be pushed into the fires of war. However, the United States of America would stand on the sideline for some time before becoming involved in an affair they had no care to be in. Come 1917 the U.S. would enter the war though, aiding its Western European allies in their fight against Germany and the Triple Alliance. This entry into WWI was a marked shift in U.S. foreign policy, moving from a nation of isolation; the U.S.’s participation and position in WWI would forever change its standing in the world politics and its position as a unilateralist nation. When examining U.S. history, and in specifics the history of our nation’s foreign policy, WW I can be viewed largely as one of the pivotal moments in the creation of the modern state. To understand how the United States became the country that it is today, it is imperative that the history surround WWI be understood as well. Looking at the time period in three different blocks helps to clarify how exactly the United States transformed, pre-war, war time, and post-war, all form together as a cohesive examination of the rise of the U.S. Beginning with the time leading up to the war, the analysis ofShow MoreRelatedHitler s Foreign Policy During The World War II2305 Words   |  10 Pagesofficial start of the Second World War is most commonly linked with the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939. 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Adolf Hitler, Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, assumed responsibility for German foreign policy in JanuaryRead MoreForeign Policy Decisions Of The United States888 Words   |  4 PagesReflecting on the foreign policy decisions of the United States of the Post-World War II era, one will find that the U.S. aimed to make pragmatic foreign policy decisions to strengthe n its position in world politics. Some of these decisions may have given the U.S. economic advantages or helped spread democracy to the world. However, they were only the byproducts of a pragmatic strategy that aimed at giving the U.S. a larger sphere of influence in geopolitics over the Soviet Union. It is seen in theRead MoreThe Cold War And Postmodern Eras1579 Words   |  7 Pageswith the establishment of an American foreign policy that has helped create a bipolar world. It allows America to focus on its interest and create a myth that the American people have a destiny to fulfill in the world. 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Sunday, December 22, 2019

Ronald Reagans Life and Accomplishments - 1146 Words

Ronald Reagan began his life in 1911 in Tampico, IL. When he was nine, his family moved to Dixon, IL where he grew up. His father owned a shoe store in town. His mother raised him with the fundamental belief in God that he carried with him throughout his life and presidency. He became a devout Christian and was very involved in his church. He was a very kind and caring boy and very much an introvert, something that he carried on later in life. He was very athletic, playing football and various other sports. However, when he was a young man, he became a lifeguard on the Rock River a few miles from Dixon. This is where he found what he was meant to do...to rescue people (Reagan, n.d.). Reagan went to Eureka College and majored in†¦show more content†¦He believed that a tax cut would stimulate the economy and help balance the budget. Reagan had the uncanny ability to project what he wanted and he trusted people to do it. Sometimes that backfired on him but for the most part, it stood firm. The â€Å"Power of Persuasion† was something that learned how to do well from his acting career (Reagan, n.d.). In March 1981, he was the victim of an assassination attempt. Afterwards, he became even more recluse than before. To say Reagan never had any friends was an understatement. He had acquaintances but never had any real friends outside of his wife, Nancy. This event changed him in more ways than one. He was much more evangelistic and more apt to prayer than ever before. He did bounce back physically and went straight back to work on the economic recovery. Reaganomics, as some people called it, was supposed to lead people out of hardship and instead it had the opposite effect, at least at first. He had to choose between a balanced budget or lose the strong military presence to fight against Communism. He absolutely refused to give in when it came to the military presence, so he gave up on the balanced budget. 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Brands and LBJ’s written by Robert DallekRead MoreRonald Reagan s Speech At The Washington Hilton Hotel1542 Words   |  7 PagesOn March 30, 1981 Ronald Reagan is giving a speech at the Washington Hilton Hotel in Washington D.C. John Hinckley Jr. is waiting outside the hotel with the intent to impre ss the young actress Jodie Foster, who he had fallen in love with after watching the movie Taxi Driver His plan to impress her was to kill the president of the United States Ronald Reagan. As Reagan was leaving the hotel after his speech John Hinckley approaches Reagan pulling out a 22. Pistol Hinckley fires six shots hitting 4Read MoreLeadership, Communication, And Citizen Compassion1561 Words   |  7 Pagesthis necessary? This paper seeks to prove that adaptive leadership, communication, and citizen compassion are the necessary elements for a successful presidency as evidenced by two of our former leaders, President Franklin Roosevelt and President Ronald Reagan. 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Saturday, December 14, 2019

Spice Chart Free Essays

Mature common Woman: Firm of heart strong beautiful brave like a man Bad woman: Thin tottering weak unfriendly The Weaver: Concern Hi her thread skilled a blender of colors Bad Weaver: Silly foolish unskilled unobservant Physician knows the herbs conducts examination professional trustworthy mutates Women spent 30 to 40 hours a week into preparing basic foods Political Leaders/ Elites: Herman Cortes the Spanish captain who first entered the city reported the â€Å"the stone masonry and the woodwork are equally good; they could not be better anywhere. † Vernal Ditz del Castillo admired the Aztec city so much rods could hardly explain Toppling- Tolled leader and apparently a priest dedicated to the god Quadruplicate who later became confused with the god himself in the legends Toppling a religious reformer who was involved in a struggle for priestly or political power with another faction. When he lost him and his followers went into exile they promised to come back on the same date on the cyclical calendar Anesthetically was a leading Aztec king of the 15th century. We will write a custom essay sample on Spice Chart or any similar topic only for you Order Now State Structure: Political units claimed authority on the basis of their military power and their injections to Tolled cultures Aztec distrusted by everyone however they were seen as good use due to their fighting skills. This made them attractive as mercenaries or allies. Mowers death or death while taking prisoners for the sacrificial knife, was the end to a nobles life and ensured eternity in the highest heaven a reward also promised to women who died in childbirth Subjects were forced to pay tribute, surrender lands, and sometimes do military service for the growing Aztec empire Mexican had become a stratified society under the authority of a supreme ruler Greatly expanded into an enormous cult in which the military class played a central role as suppliers Of war captives to be used as sacrificial victims. Aztec state was dominated by a king who represented civil power and served as a representative of the gods on earth Human sacrifice and conquest was united with the political power of the ruler and the nobility Banners, cloaks, and other insignia marked off the military ranks Military was organized by ranks based on experience and success in taking captives Military virtues where linked to the cult of sacrifice and infused the whole society Nobility broke free from their old calculi and wend private lands Long distant merchants formed a sort of calculi with patron gods, privileges and internal divisions; served as spies or agents of Aztec military The state controlled the use and distribution of many commodities and redistributed the vast amounts of tribute received from subordinate peoples Tribute levels were assigned on whether the subject people accepted Aztec rule or fought against it Tribute payments where things such as food , slaves, and sacrificial victims, served political a nd economic ends 1 20,000 mantles of cotton cloth alone were collected as rebut each year and sent to Authentication Aztec divided into seven Calculi, or clans, a form of organization that they later expanded and adapted to their imperial position. -Included neighbors, allies, and dependents Wars/Revolutions: â€Å"flower wars† could be staged in which both sides could obtain captives for sacrifice Diplomacy: Treaties: Courts, Law: Feeding the great population of Authentication and the Aztec confederation in general depended on traditional forms of agriculture. Lands conquered peoples often were appropriated, and food sometimes was demanded as tribute. Nationalism: Human sacrifice, long a part of Micronesian religion, greatly expanded into an enormous cult in which the military class played a central role as suppliers of war captives to be used as sacrificial victims. Interaction- Geography: Lakes contained cities Rise of lakes made it impossible to continue an irrigated system Disease: Patterns of Settlement: Migration: Migrated to the shores of Lake Texaco Chemic migrants came from the northwest and various groups of sedentary farmers Aztec domination expanded from the Etruscan frontier about a hundred miles north Of present day Mexico city Technology: Canoes which allowed transportation Many bridges at intervals Wood work They built artificial floating islands about 17 feet long and 1 00 to 330 feet wide Millard- a machine that grinded helped female have more spare time helped trade Demography: 1. Million to 25 million people 20 million people excluding the Maya areas Aztec were a group of about a 10,000 people Culture- Religions: Micronesia n Belief Systems: Aztec where tough warriors and fanatical followers of their gods Human sacrifice Aztec would settle when they saw an eagle perched on a cactus with a repent in its beak Mexican people who served gods Micronesian religion believed in human sacrifice Gods of rain, fire, water, corn, the sky, and the Sun 128 deities Each deity had a male and female form Believed gods might have different manifestations similar to avatars of the Hindu deities Certain gods were thought to be the patrons of specific cities, ethnic groups, or occupations Festivals and ceremonies that involved feasting and dancing along with penance and sacrifice God of Fertility called Tallow God of the Rain Coach Gods and Goddesses of water, maize, and fertility Creator deities – gods and goddesses who created the universe Hydrochloric was the old sun god and saw him as a warrior in the day and in order to live he needed the human blood Human hearts and blood sustained the gods Believed the world had been destroyed four times before and we would be destroyed again Food was offered as tribute Philosophies and ideologies: fatalism in Aztec thought and a premonition that eventually the sacrifices would be insufficient and the gods would again bring catastrophe. 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Friday, December 6, 2019

Constitution of India free essay sample

CONSTITUTION OF INDIA The Constitution of India, according to Ivor Jennings, is The longest and the most detailed in the world. Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishing the structure, procedures, powers and duties of the government. It spells out fundamental rights, directive principles and duties of citizens. The constitution of India was drafted by the Constituent Assembly. The drafting committee of the constitution consists of seven members with Dr. B. R. Ambedkar as the chairman. The Assembly took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to pass the draft of the constitution. It was finally adopted on November 26, 1949 and it came into force on January 26, 1950. The date January 26 was chosen to commemorate the declaration of independence of 1930. It declares the Union of India sovereign, socialist, secular and democratic republic. It assures its citizens of Justice, equality and liberty, and promotes among all fraternity. We will write a custom essay sample on Constitution of India or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page India celebrates the adoption of the Constitution on January 26 each year as Republic Day. It is the longest written Constitution of any sovereign country in the world. It comprises 448 Articles divided into 22 parts and 12 schedules. Being the supreme law of Country, every law enacted by the government must conform to the Constitution. Many articles of the Constitution of India were borrowed from the Government of India Act 1935. To a large extent the Act of 1935 was the basic structure on which the new Constitution was framed. Many ideas were incorporated from the Constitution of Britain, Ireland, USA, South Africa, Canada, etc. Although our Constitution has adopted some provisions from many foreign Constitutions, yet our drafting committee has tried to make the Indian Constitution a document which is the most suitable to the Indian condition and environment. According to Jawaharlal Nehru, whatever system of government we may establish here must fit in with the temper of our people and be acceptable to them. The aims and objectives of the Constitution are expressed in the Preamble in a nutshell. It represents the spirit and soul of the Constitution. It is the proper yardstick with which we can measure the orth of the Constitution, the text of the Preamble runs as follow: WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens; JUSTICE, social, Economic and Political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, faith, belief and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; And to promote among them all; FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation; IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT, AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION. The constitution of India unique in many ways. It has several special features that distinguish it from other Constitution of the world. It is a detailed document in which the functions of the legislative, Executive and Judicial organs both at the Centre and in the State have been elaborately prescribed. It emphasizes on secularism. Indian Constitution has spirit. The Constitution of India is neither rigid nor flexible. It is a rather a strange mixture, with appropriate modifications, to suit Indian conditions. Constitution came nto effect on January 26, 1950. So far, 45 amendments were made to the Constitution prominent. Another significant feature of Indian Constitution is that a supreme court is constituted to serve as the highest court of the Country. The Constitution made the judiciary independent of the executive. There is a provision of Judicial review in the Constitution. Part Ill of the Constitution deals with the Fundamental Rights which are isx in number as Right to Equality, Right to freedom, Right against exploitation, Right to freedom of religion, cultural and education, Right for minorities and the Right to eek Constitutional remedies. Recently Right to work and Right to education have been added in fundamental Rights. The Supreme Court and the High Court are empowered to safe guard these fundamental Rights. Part IV of the Constitution covering Articles from 36 to 51 enumerates several Directive Principles of State policy. They are aimed at the promotion of the material and moral well being of the people and to transform India into a welfare state. The 42nd Constitutional Amendment of 1976 incorporated the Fundamental Duties of citizens along with Fundamental Rights n the Constitution of India. The Constitution requiring all citizens to fulfill ten duties like, respecting the Constitution, National Flag and the National Anthem, Cherishing the noble ideas of the freedom struggle, upholding the unity of India, etc. Adult suffer age is also an important feature of the Constitution. Till 1946, only the tax payers and poverty owners were voters. With the enforcement of the new Constitution, all the adults who attained 18 years of age become eligible to exercise their franchise. Constitution of India has been criticized by many persons. The critics point out that there is nothing original in the new Constitution of India. Many sections and many provisions have been taken word by word from Government of India Act, 1935, and the Constitutions of other countries of world. The Constitution is over centralized and the units have been reduced to the level of local bodies. The critics condemn the emergency powers of the president as these powers can be used by the president for the purpose of setting up a dictatorship in the country. The Constitution is unduly prolix and elaborate. It is argued that the Indian Constitution had been framed by lawyers and for lawyers. The Indian Constitution is the longest Constitution and the process of amendment is also not a simple one. In spite of all thee, we can say that Constitution of India is not merely a political or legal document; it is a charter of citizenship values. Our Constitution expects the citizens of India to be familiar with the basic structure and democratic functioning of democratic polity. This exception can be fulfilled with effective education in democratic citizenship.

Friday, November 29, 2019

Religious Consciousness Essays - Salvation, Spirituality, Nirvana

Religious Consciousness My religious consciousness is different from my ordinary consciousness. There are a lot of actions that some people consider to be acceptable and ordinary, but religious people consider to be a sin. There are also certain objects, places, and times of the year that a non-religious person would think of as ordinary, but a some religious people would view as very special. From a Christian viewpoint, a Church is a holy place. It is thought of as the House of God. When I go to Church on Sunday, I find myself in a very religious mood. On another day of the week, Tuesday for example, I might not think of God even once all day long. When I go to Church I am thinking of how grateful I am that God loves me and I thank Him for the opportunity to live in this wonderful world. When I leave Church it is very possible that my religious feelings will slowly fade away. By Tuesday, I might be back to thinking like an average American (non-religious) guy. It would be nice to have something at home to remind me of the thoughts that I was thinking in Church on Sunday. I do have some religious items, but they are not displayed in a place where I see them every day. Christmas is a time of the year when I am thinking about God a lot more often. With all the decorations around the house and the neighborhood, it's hard to forget about Him. I know some non religious people who celebrate Christmas, but they do not think of it as a religious holiday. To them it is just a holiday to be with the family and exchange gifts - they skip all the religious ideas behind it. There are also some actions that might not get a second thought from some people, but that I would feel guilty doing. I would think of these actions as sins. A few examples are lying and stealing. I know some people who might tell a lie every now-and-then. They think that nobody knows the truth except them. I know that I have had that thought cross my mind too. The difference between me and a non-religious person is the fact that I think of how God knows that it would be a lie. I can't keep any secrets from Him, so usually I wouldn't lie. It is the same way for stealing. Taking the Lord's name in vain is another example. I know that there are a lot of people in this country who swear. Whenever I swore in the past, I would have a guilty feeling. Swearing is one bad habit that I found to be pretty easy to overcome. I own some religious objects that I view as sacred. The objects include a Bible, a crucifix, and a rosary. Even though these objects do not have much material value, I consider them to be very important. I treat them with more care than I would for an object that is worth a lot of money. The Bible is God's word and I treat it with a lot of care. The crucifix reminds me of how Jesus died on the cross for me and everyone else so that our sins may be forgiven. A person who isn't Christian might think of it as just two pieces of wood nailed together; an object that they would throw in the trash. People can make any object or place special in an instant. If I didn't have a crucifix, I could cut a cross out an old cardboard box and tack it to my wall. Now I would have a crucifix that I could pray to. The artistic design isn't important. I can see all of the artwork and beautiful images in my imagination when I am thinking about God. To become closer to God, I don't need to buy a lot of expensive religious decorations. Just one crucifix or picture of Jesus is all that is necessary. Once I see that, it will activate my imagination and I will start to think nice thoughts about God, and He will do the rest. Section Three, #7 Indian and Christian religions have different goals. The goal of Christian religions is to go to Heaven. The goal of Indian religions like Buddhism and Hinduism is to attain Nirvana. Heaven is a place. Nirvana is a state of mind. The word Nirvana comes from the root meaning ?to blow